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These are normal hormonal changes that occur to a woman's body every month in preparation for pregnancy, starting from puberty and ending in menopause. The duration is approximately 28 days, and may range between 20 or 40 days, as the first days of menstruation is the first day of the menstrual cycle, and ends with the beginning of the next menstruation.

Daye menstruation

 The menstrual cycle in girls often begins in adulthood, the age range of 8 to 15 years (about 12 years), usually two years after the appearance of breasts and pubic hair growth.


Stages of the menstrual cycle

There are 4 stages: menstruation, follicular phase, ovulation phase, and yellow phase

Premenstrual syndrome

Some psychological and physical changes may appear in \the luteal phase, which include Physical changes:

Swelling and swelling of the breasts.

Diarrhea or constipation.

Bulges and gases.


Headache or back pain.

Fluid retention.

Fatigue and dizziness.

Inability to withstand inconvenience and high lighting.


Psychological changes:

Turbulence or aggressive behavior.

Sleep disorders (frequent or low).

Changed appetite.

Difficulty concentrating and remembering.

Anxiety and stress. Mood Swings.

Depression or feeling sad.


These changes are caused by a sudden drop in progesterone and estrogen levels, but they disappear within several days after menstruation has come down and hormones have returned to rise again.

Common disorders associated with the menstrual cycle:

 Cramps Many girls experience abdominal cramps during the first days of the cycle, which are caused by chemicals in the body that cause the uterine muscles to contract and help endometriosis.

Menstrual pain or dysmenorrhea It is the most common problems associated with menstruation, and its severity varies from woman to woman.

Irregular menstrual cycle :

The girl's body begins to regulate her menstrual cycle two to three years after her inception, during which time the body tries to adapt to hormonal changes that occur, and is considered irregular if it is longer or shorter than normal, but it is normal irregularity in the pre-menopause. Irregularity generally occurs for these reasons: Eating disorders. Thyroid problems. Take certain medications (eg, epilepsy).

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